Brief Global Chronology

Take an insight in the odyssey of the Universe history from the Big-Bang to nowadays through stunning global chronologies.

This chronology aims at representing the most relevant events that allowed humanity to understand where we come from, what is our current understanding of the Universe, its impact on ourselves, to better apprehend our future.

A chronology willing to be universal

Even if we try to be as much objective and relevant as possible, note that all chronologies are subjective in the way that they are focusing on a particular view, topic and kind of information shared.

In order to apprehend this chronology in the best conditions and most transparent way, note  that: 

1

The year 0 of this calendar is the year 2000 of the Gregorian calendar.

This was chosen to be more relevant to our current lifetime.

2

Our focus is on the main events that are responsible for making Earth, and life on it, possible in a first place. Then the one that permitted our ancestors to appearglobally significant civilisations to get built, as well as the main spiritual movements  and scientifical discoveries that shaped our world, permitting us to be here right now.

3

All wars and game power between people and countries won’t appear here because considered as already well documented and would make this chronology way too long. Also, it would force us to choose the position of a country rather than another and select which war is important or not.

We do not consider wars as globally useful for humankind flourishment.

4

Last but not least, don’t forget to make your own research to complete what you will learn here. Enjoy!

The Brief Global Chronology

Beginning of the Universe 🌌

Time before year 0

(Year 2000 of the
Gregorian Calendar)
Beginning of the known UniverseApprox. time After Bing Bang

(ABB)
- 13 700 000 000 yearsBig Bang0 ABB
- 13 700 000 000 years + 1/100 sec.First protons, neutrons & electrons1/100 sec. ABB
- 13 700 000 000 years + 1 secondeFirst appearance of deuterium nuclei (heavy hydrogen)1 second ABB
- 13 700 000 000 years + 1/4 hourAppearance of helium nuclei15 minutes ABB
- 13 699 700 000Appearances of helium and hydrogen atoms 300 000 years ABB
- 13 699 000 000Formation of cold clouds of cosmic gas1 000 000 years ABB
- 13 600 000 000 Formation of the first galaxies100 000 000 years ABB
- 13 100 000 000Oldest black hole known & observed (1342+0928)1 800 000 000 ABB
- 10 000 000 000Formation of stars and planets5 000 000 000 ABB
- 4 570 000 000Formation of the Earth, molten lava ball then cooling9 430 000 000 ABB
- 4 500 000 000Collision of Mars-sized debris with Earth / Formation of the Moon9 500 000 000 ABB
- 4 100 000 000First chain of nucleotides9 900 000 000 ABB
- 4 000 000 000Most ancient rocks, steam condensation10 000 000 000 ABB
- 3 800 000 000First little deep oceans, composed of a carbon base11 200 000 000 ABB

Beginning of Life 🌱 on Earth 🌎

Time before year 0

(Year 2000 of the
Gregorian Calendar)
Beginning of Life on EarthApprox. time After Bing Bang

(ABB)
- 3 500 000 000First bacterian cell, appearance of DNA & Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) known11 500 000 000 ABB
- 3 400 000 000Appearance of photosynthesis of oxygen11 600 000 000 ABB
- 2 800 000 000Tectonic plates / Continental drift12 200 000 000 ABB
- 2 700 000 000 to - 1 600 000 000Appearance of Eucaryote 12 200 000 000 ABB
- 2 500 000 000Complete development of bacteria12 500 000 000 ABB
- 2 400 000 0001st mass extinction (Great Oxidation)12 600 000 000 ABB
- 2 200 000 000Appearance of nucleus cells12 800 000 000 ABB
- 2 000 000 000Increased oxygen level in the atmosphere13 000 000 000 ABB
- 1 800 000 000Cells begin to use oxygen as a source of energy13 200 000 000 ABB
- 1 500 000 000Bacteria fuse to form composite organisms (Proterozoic)13 500 000 000 ABB
- 1 300 000 000The oxygen level in the atmosphere reaches its current level (21%)13 800 000 000 ABB
- 1 000 000 000Begin of sexual reproduction14 000 000 000 ABB
- 800 000 000Mitochondria and Chloroplasts14 200 000 000 ABB
- 700 000 000First animals (Moluccas without shells)14 300 000 000 ABB
- 600 000 000Appearance of shells and skeletons14 400 000 000 ABB
- 541 000 000 to - 485 000 000Appearance of eye (association of photosensitive and pigmented cells)14 400 000 000 ABB
- 500 000 000Early plants (Palaeozoic) / Appearance of brain structure in worms14 500 000 000 ABB
- 445 000 0002nd mass extinction (Ordovician)14 555 000 000 ABB
- 400 000 000First terrestrial animals (insects, amphibians ...)14 600 000 000 ABB
- 385 000 0003rd mass extinction (Devonian)14 615 000 000 ABB
- 370 000 000Appearance of seeds (seed ferns)14 615 000 000 ABB
- 300 000 000 Beginning of the reign of the dinosaurs14 700 000 000 ABB
- 252 000 0004th mass extinction (Permian)14 748 000 000 ABB
- 250 000 000Appearance of paleo-mammal brain14 748 000 000 ABB
- 200 000 0005th mass extinction (Triassic-Jurassic) / Early flying reptiles, first mammals (Mesozoic)14 800 000 000 ABB
- 160 000 000Separation of the plates of the single continent (Pangea) / Beginning of the continental drift14 840 000 000 ABB
- 100 000 000Early primates & flowering plants (Jurassic)14 900 000 000 ABB
- 70 000 000The Earth is covered with vast forests, and still populated by monstrous reptiles14 930 000 000 ABB
- 65 000 0006th mass extinction (Cretaceous) / end of the dinosaurs' reign14 935 000 000 ABB
- 60 000 000Explosion of biodiversity (Cambrian)14 940 000 000 ABB

Beginning of Humankind 👣

Time before year 0

(Year 2000 of the
Gregorian Calendar)
Beginning of the Humankind HistoryApprox. time After Bing Bang

(ABB)
- 4 000 000Reign of Australopithecus (Australopithecus afarensis)14 996 000 000 ABB
- 3 200 000Lucy14 996 800 000 ABB
- 3 000 000Ape men start using tools14 997 000 000 ABB
- 2 500 000Diversification into several Australopithecus species14 997 500 000 ABB
- 2 000 000Appearance of 1st hominids: Homo habilis14 998 000 000 ABB
- 1 600 000Homo Ergaster14 998 400 000 ABB
- 1 400 000Disappearance of Australopithecus 14 998 600 000 ABB
- 1 000 000Installation of Homo Erectus in Asia and Europe14 999 000 000 ABB
- 750 000First human use of fire14 999 250 000 ABB
- 250 000Archaic form of Homo-Sapiens / Disappearance of Homo-Erectus14 999 750 000 ABB
- 200 000Appearance of modern Homo-Sapiens14 999 800 000 ABB
-150 000 to -100 000First domestication (wolf in dog)
- 125 000Reign of Neanderthal Men14 999 875 000 ABB
- 65 000Installation of Homo-Sapiens in Oceania14 999 935 000 ABB
- 35 000Early Palaeolithic writings & cave paintings (Altamira Cave, Spain) / Disappearance of Neanderthals14 999 965 000 ABB
- 25 000Installation of Homo-Sapiens in America14 999 975 000 ABB
- 17 000Lascaux cave parietal wall paintings14 999 975 000 ABB
- 12 000
(- 10 000 BC)
First traces of villages14 999 988 000 ABB
- 10 000
(- 8 000 BC)
Settlement & the emergence of agriculture14 999 990 000 ABB
- 7 000
(- 5 000 BC)
Invention of the wheel / First villages on the Yellow River Valley, birth of Ancient China 14 999 993 000 ABB
- 5 600
(- 3 600 BC)
Birth of architecture in Malta14 999 994 400 ABB
- 5 300
(- 3 300 BC)
Appearance of Sumerian writing14 999 994 700 ABB
- 5 200
(- 3 200 BC)
First Egyptian dynasties14 999 994 800 ABB
- 5 000
(- 3 000 BC)
First form of complex mathematics / Beginning of Hinduism / Top of the Sumerian Civilization in Mesopotamia14 999 995 000 ABB
- 4 800
(- 2 800 BC)
Pyramids of Cheops14 999 995 200 ABB
- 4 500
(- 4 500 BC)
Oldest mention of the city of Babylon14 999 995 500 ABB
- 3 800
(- 1 800 BC)
Beginning of Judaism14 999 996 200 ABB
- 3 400
(- 1 400 BC)
Birth of Tutankhamun14 999 996 600 ABB
- 3 200
(- 1 200 BC)
Invention of the Alphabet14 999 996 800 ABB
- 2 800
(- 800 BC)
Emergence of Classical Greece14 999 997 200 ABB
- 2 753
(- 753 BC)
Foundation of the city of Rome14 999 997 700 ABB
- 2 700 to - 2 500
(- 700 to - 500 BC)
Decline of Ancient Egypt
- 2 660
(- 660 BC)
Birth of the prophet Zoroaster / Beginning of Japan14 999 997 340 ABB
- 2 605
(- 605 BC)
Advent of Nebuchadnezzar / Radiance of Babylon / Beginning of Taoïsm14 999 997 395 ABB
- 2 600
(- 600 BC)
Beginning of Mayan Empire
- 2 500
(- 500 BC)
Beginning of Buddhism14 999 997 500 ABB
- 2 350
(- 350 BC)
Birth of Alexander the Great14 999 997 650 ABB
- 2 247
(- 247 BC)
Birth of the Chinese Empire / Beginning of the reign of the 1st Chinese Emperor14 999 997 753 ABB
- 2 217
(- 217 BC)
Hannibal14 999 997 783 ABB
- 2 100
(- 100 BC)
Birth of Julius Caesar14 999 997 800 ABB
- 2 018
(- 100 BC)
Most ancient written trace of watermills (by Romans)14 999 997 800 ABB
- 2 000
(0 BC)
Beginning of Christianity / Birth of Jesus14 999 998 000 ABB
- 1 900 to - 1 500
(100 to 400 BC)
Beginning of Hindu–Arabic numeral system
- 1 524
(476 AC)
Fall of the Occidental Roman Empire / Early Middle Ages14 999 998 476 ABB
- 1 400
(600 AC)
Beginning of Islam14 999 998 600 ABB
- 1 100
(900 AC)
Decline of Mayan Empire (except in the northern lowlands of Latin America)14 999 998 900 ABB
- 1 000
(1 000 AC)
Viking colony in North America14 999 999 000 ABB
- 675
(1 325 AC)
Foundation of Tenochtitlan by the Aztecs14 999 999 325 ABB
- 562
(1 438 AC)
Incan Empire formed in Peru14 999 999 438 ABB

Beginning of Global Sciences ⚗️ & Improved Knowledge Sharing 📚

Time before year 0

(Year 2000 of the
Gregorian Calendar)
Beginning of the age of science and fast sharing knowledgeApprox. time After Bing Bang

(ABB)
- 550
(1 450 AC)
Gutenberg printing14 999 999 450 ABB
-518
(1 492 AC)
European rediscovery of America by Christopher Columbus / Early Renaissance14 999 999 482 ABB
- 496
(1 504 AC)
Leonardo da Vinci paints Mona-Lisa (La Gioconda)14 999 999 504 ABB
- 481 to - 478
(1 519 to 1 522 AC)
First world tour by Magellan / Beginning of Sciences
- 457
(1 543 AC)
Copernicus postulates a heliocentric universe14 999 999 543 ABB
- 413
(1 587 AC)
Monte's Planisphere, Earth's largest early map14 999 999 687 ABB
- 391
(1 609 AC)
Galileo makes first astronomical observations with a telescope14 999 999 609 ABB
-336
(1 664 AC)
Newton's theory of universal gravitation14 999 999 664 ABB
- 322
(1 678 AC)
Halley makes first global stars catalog 14 999 999 678 ABB
- 240
(1 760 AC)
Industrial Revolution begins in England14 999 999 760 ABB
- 231
(1 769 AC)
Watt patents first practical steam engine14 999 999 763 ABB
- 200
(1 800 AC)
Herschel discovers infrareds14 999 999 800 ABB
- 199
(1 801 AC)
Ritter discovers ultraviolets14 999 999 801 ABB
- 179
(1 821 AC)
Michael Faraday invents electric motor14 999 999 821 ABB
- 163
(1 837 AC)
Slavery abolished in British Empire14 999 999 837 ABB
- 161
(1 839 AC)
Birth of photography14 999 999 839 ABB
- 151
(1 849 AC)
Charles Darwin publishes Theory of Evolution in his book The Origin of Species14 999 999 849 ABB
- 134
(1 866 AC)
August Mouchot invents the first solar steam engine14 999 999 869 ABB
- 131
(1 869 AC)
Dmitry Mendeleev inventes the periodic table14 999 999 869 ABB
- 128
(1 872 AC)
Louis Pasteur makes the first vaccine on a human14 999 999 872 ABB
- 121
(1 879 AC)
Invention of the light bulb14 999 999 879 ABB
- 114
(1 886 AC)
Bell Alexander Graham patents the telephone14 999 999 886 ABB
- 111
(1 889 AC)
Thomas Edison invents electric light14 999 999 889 ABB
- 107
(1 893 AC)
Voting rights for women in New Zealand (1st worldwide)14 999 999 894 ABB
- 106
(1 894 AC)
Nikola Tesla invents of the alternating current14 999 999 894 ABB
- 105
(1 895 AC)
Wilhelm Roentgen discovers X-rays14 999 999 895 ABB
- 97
(1 903 AC)
Wright brothers fly first motorized airplane14 999 999 903 ABB
- 96
(1 904 AC)
First geothermal power plant by Prince Piero Ginori14 999 999 905 ABB
- 95
(1 905 AC)
Albert Einstein announces the theory of Relativity14 999 999 905 ABB
- 90
(1 910 AC)
Birth of public radio broadcasting credited to Lee de Forest14 999 999 910 ABB
- 89
(1 911 AC)
Ernest Rutherford discovers structure of atom14 999 999 911 ABB

Beginning of the Universe 🌌

- 55
(1 945 AC)
Master of nuclear fission / Birth of the United Nations (UN) / First electronic computer14 999 999 945 ABB
- 52
(1 947 AC)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights14 999 999 948 ABB
- 50
(1 950 AC)
Invention of the first oral contraceptive pill14 999 999 953 ABB
- 47
(1 953 AC)
Watson, Crick & Franklin discover DNA's structure14 999 999 953 ABB
- 43
(1 957 AC)
Russia launches first satellite, Sputnik I / Publication of the « Synthesis of Elements in Stars » paper by B²FH14 999 999 957 ABB
-31
(1 969 AC)
Armstrong & Aldrin walk on the Moon / Internet (ARPA) goes online14 999 999 969 ABB
- 26
(1 974 AC)
Stephen Hawking publishes The theory of radiations (Hawking Radiation)14 999 999 974 ABB
- 25
(1 975 AC)
Invention of the micro-processor14 999 999 975 ABB
- 24
(1 976 AC)
Release of VHS recording cassette14 999 999 976 ABB
- 23
(1 977 AC)
NASA launches Voyager 114 999 999 977 ABB
- 22
(1 978 AC)
Louise Brown is the first baby born from an In Vitro fertilization14 999 999 978 ABB
- 20
(1 980 AC)
First first gigabyte hard drive by IBM (same size than a fridge)14 999 999 980 ABB
- 18
(1 982 AC)
Release of the first Compact Disc (CD) by a co-developped by Philipps & Sony
(for music and audiobook)
14 999 999 982 ABB
- 10
(1 990 AC)
Public announcement of the World Wide Web14 999 999 990 ABB
-3
(1 997 AC)
Release of the first digital versatile disc (DVD) by Sony 14 999 999 993 ABB
0
(2 000 AC)
Beginning of the 21st Century of the Gregorian Calendar15 000 000 000 ABB
1
(2 001 AC)
The map of the human genome is complete15 000 000 007 ABB
7
(2 007 AC)
First smartphone (iPhone by Apple)15 000 000 007 ABB
12
(2 012 AC)
Voyager 1 becomes the 1st spacecraft to cross the Heliopause and enter the Interstellar medium / Higgs boson discovery in CERN15 000 000 012 ABB
15
(2 015 AC)
First gravitational wave detected15 000 000 012 ABB
19
(2 019 AC)
First picture of a black hole / Declaration of the 7th mass extinction (Anthropocene)15 000 000 019 ABB

Other interesting perspectives on global chronology

1) Timelapse of the Entire Universe

In this 10 mins video realized by the YouTube Channel “MelodySheep”, discover a journey of all what we know of the universe’s history in a mindblowing timelaspe where each second represent 23 million years, and where we, humans, appear in the last second.

2) Timelapse of Earth History

In this one hour animated movie made by the collective and YouTube channel “Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell”, you will have a contemplative overview of earth history, where every second shows about a million years of the planet’s evolution. This musical train ride is a great way to experience how long a billion years really is.

3) The clock of Earth History

In this infographic representation, discover Earth’s history with time-spans of the eons to scale . Through it, have an overview of Earth’s 4,5 Ga history on a clock (“Ma” = a million years (Megayear) ago; “Ga” = a billion years (Gigayear) ago)

4) The Human Odyssey Map

In this interactive map created by the California Academy of Science, historic population and cropland data illustrate the relationship between the spread of human civilization and agriculture on Earth between 200,000 BCE to nowadays.

5) Continental Drift in a nutshell

This other interactive map allows you to see how far your hometowns have moved over 750 million years of continental drift.

The online map, designed by Ian Webster, features a range of tools that also make it easy to discover more about the Earth, such as where the first reptiles lived or when the first flower bloomed.

Any suggestions to add? Edits to proposed? Here you can!

This chronology is evolutive and collaborative, we are open to add new relevant events and update the already published one.

To contribute so please fill this short form :

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